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Low Glycemic Index vs. High Fiber Diet: Which is Better for Diabetics?
There's been a lot of talk about low-glycemic-index diets being better for helping diabetics control their blood sugars, but the studies that have been done tend to be small and of short duration. Back in 2008 researchers in Canada decided to improve on past studies by designing a larger, more long term study to compare the effects of a low glycemic index diet with a high cereal fiber diet.
A high-GL diet may help maintain weight loss
One of the components of weight management that scientists are interested in is the concept of "self-efficacy" - or the feeling that one is competent or capable of performing a task. Researchers at Tufts University decided to investigate whether counseling intended to lead to greater self-efficacy, combined with a high or low Glycemic Load (high-GL or low-GL) diet, would help individuals lose weight or maintain that weight loss.
More on Breakfast and Blood Sugars
An interesting pilot study out of the University of Minnesota looked at the intersection between breakfast, whole grains (in terms of the Glycemic Index) and blood sugar control (an important element in preventing or managing diabetes).
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A couple of months ago I wrote about the link - or lack thereof - between dietary Glycemic Index and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The Glycemic Index is of interest to those seeking to help prevent or treat diabetes because it measures the effect that a specific food has on a person's blood sugar after the person eats it. Unfortunately, the results of studies assessing the link between GI and diabetes risk have been mixed. As I mentioned in the article, just because the research isn't yet conclusive, that hasn't stopped people from creating commercial diets based on the Glycemic Index.
Today I have another reason for you to treat these diets with some skepticism. An article published in the British Journal of Nutrition describes a small study performed in Finland that essentially compares the theory of the Glycemic Index with reality (2011;106(2):248-253).
The researchers recruited 11 healthy adult men and women of normal weight who also had a normal glucose tolerance based on a standardized test. They were given six different meals that included mashed potatoes in a random order, once a week for six weeks. After they ate the meal, their blood glucose was measured every fifteen minutes for the first hour, then at 90 and 120 minutes after the meal.
The six meals were as follows:
1. Mashed potato with margarine, served with water and ~1.5 ounces cucumber
2. Mashed potato with ~1 ounce rapeseed (canola) oil, served with water and ~1.5 ounces cucumber
3. Mashed potato with ~4 ounces chicken breast, served with water and ~1.5 ounces cucumber
4. Mashed potato with ~4 ounces salad comprised of cucumber, tomato and lettuce
5. Mashed potato with ~1 ounce rapeseed oil, ~4 ounces chicken breast and ~4 ounces salad (as in #4)
6. A slightly smaller portion of mashed potato with ~1 ounce rapeseed oil, ~4 ounces chicken breast, ~4 ounces salad, and a ~4 ounce slice of rye bread
All the meals contained about the same number of carbohydrates (the meals with salad had 4 more carbohydrates than the others). As a reference, each person consumed a standard glucose solution on two occasions during these six weeks so that the researchers could determine the GI for each meal in comparison to the individual's response to the glucose solution.
What they found is rather surprising. Standard reference table give a range of GI values for mashed potatoes between 71 and 102 (and even up to 106). Having the mashed potato with the rapeseed oil (whose GI is about 0) actually yielded a lower GI value - 37 points less! The meal that most resembled something you might actually eat at a meal, #5, also had a lower GI than the mashed potato alone.
This is an example of something that's useful in the lab, but not necessarily useful in the real world: people eat food, not nutrients. Better to eat great food cooked sensibly than to obsess over every glycemic point.
First posted: June 22, 2011